Eurasia Review: Debunking Myths About Wealth And Race – OpEd

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By Josh Hoxie*

I don’t get that much hate mail — except when I write about race.

This spring I coauthored a report called “Ten Solutions to Bridge the Racial Wealth Divide.”
My coauthors and I found that the median white family today owns 41
times more wealth than the median black family and 22 times more wealth
than the median Latinx family.

To fix it, we proposed new public
programs, changes to the tax code, and a commission to study reparations
for slavery, among other things.

The floodgates opened. My inbox,
along with many comment sections at news outlets and on social media,
overflowed with angry objections. Most of these blamed the wealth divide
on poor individual decision making by people of color.

Are black families 41 times worse at decision making than white families? No — that’s a racist falsehood.

In fact, here are the three most
common racist falsehoods I heard about the wealth divide — with data to
explain why they’re wrong. Feel free to bust this out at your next
family get-together.

Falsehood No. 1: Black and Latinx families have less money because they’re led by single parents.

Nope. A 2017 study
from Demos and the Institute on Assets and Social Policy showed that
single-parent white families have twice as much wealth as two-parent
black and Latinx families.

In other words, raising kids in a two-parent household doesn’t close the racial wealth divide.

Falsehood No. 2: Black people are poor because they’re less educated.

Hard no. A 2015 study titled “Umbrellas Don’t Make It Rain
found that black families led by college graduates “have about 33
percent less wealth than white families whose heads dropped out of high
school.”

In fact, according to that 2017 Demos study,
“The median white adult who attended college has 7.2 times more wealth
than the median black adult who attended college and 3.9 times more
wealth than the median Latino adult who attended college.”

In other words, higher education doesn’t close the racial wealth divide.

Falsehood No.3: Black people don’t work or are bad with money.

Definitely not. Demos found that white families actually spend more
and save less than black families with the same income. Yet white
families have way more wealth than black families with the same income.

The Umbrellas
adds that “white families with a head that is unemployed have nearly
twice the median wealth of black families with a head that is working
full-time.”

In other words, not even income alone can close the racial wealth divide.

So if these arguments are all false, what’s really going on here?

The simplest answer is a history of
oppression and inherited advantage. The impacts of slavery,
sharecropping, Jim Crow, white capping, red lining, mass incarceration,
and predatory subprime lending, among many other things, are still very
much with us.

Many white children, by contrast,
start life with a more robust safety net of family wealth. It may be as
small as getting a few hundred bucks from their parents when they really
need it, or as big as a few hundred thousand for things like college,
weddings, or their first home.

Addressing these problems is a lot
harder than blaming oppressed people for their hardship. But if we’re
going to address racial disparities in this country, we must heed James
Baldwin’s challenge that “nothing can be changed until it is faced.”

It’s not individual behavior that drives the racial wealth divide — it’s a system that many folks pretend doesn’t exist.

*Josh Hoxie directs the Project on Taxation and Opportunity at the Institute for Policy Studies.

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Eurasia Review: Religious Dissidents Attack Religious Liberty – OpEd

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The Equality Act, as I recently stated, “is the most comprehensive assault on religious liberty, the right to life, and privacy rights ever packaged into one bill in the history of the United States.” I enumerated twelve reasons why it is so draconian. Joining in defense of it are people who proclaim to be religious, yet are doing everything they can to eviscerate religious liberty, all in the name of the radical LGBT agenda.

On the Catholic side, supporters include NETWORK, the “nuns on the bus” group that is at war with the bishops on this issue, as well as many others. Led by Sr. Simone Campbell, the “social justice lobby” is dishonestly framing the Equality Act as if it were merely championing rights in the workplace. It is not.

This bill is designed to strip the Catholic Church, and other religions, of all the religious exemptions that have traditionally been afforded by federal and state legislation. It would also mean that men who declare themselves to be women would be permitted to compete in women’s sports and use their locker rooms. This has nothing to do with fairness in the workplace.

New Ways Ministry, a breakaway Catholic organization, is also supporting the Equality Act, as is Dignity USA, another group that is more pro-gay than it is pro-Catholic. John Gehring of Faith in Public Life, who claims to be a Catholic leader while being bankrolled by the atheist-billionaire George Soros, is also praising the legislation (he posted his comments on the website of Commonweal, a dissident Catholic outlet).

Other religious groups supporting this attack on religious liberty include the Interfaith Alliance, the Religious Action Center of Reform Judaism, the Unitarian Universalist Association, the Religious Institute, and the United Methodist Church (it’s a sure bet most Methodists have no idea about this decision).

Naturally, there is a whole host of secular organizations supporting this attack on religious liberty. They include the ACLU, Americans United for Separation of Church and State, the Center for American Progress  (led by Clinton operatives), and the ADL.

None of this is surprising. These entities, and there are many more like them, have worked against religious liberty for years. Now they have committed themselves to the most radical assault on the First Amendment ever launched in the Congress of the United States. That many of them are dishonestly clothed in the robes of religion makes them all the more contemptible.

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Eurasia Review: Europe’s Dilemma As US Increases Pressure On Iran – OpEd

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By Cornelia Meyer*

The Europeans were caught in the middle when the US last year
unilaterally withdrew from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action
(JCPOA), which had been signed in 2015 between the permanent five
representatives of the UN Security Council plus Germany and Iran. Their
stance was that Tehran had complied with the letter of the agreement,
which had been attested by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

The EU’s High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
Federica Mogherini even tried to devise an alternate non-dollar
denominated payment system to enable European companies to circumvent
the US sanctions and continue trading with Iran. The plan was a flop.
European companies were afraid that, even if they circumvented the
dollar, trading with Iran might shut them out of the US banking system.
The US is still the world’s largest economy and Iran, with its 80
million people and roughly $440 billion of gross domestic product, can’t
stack up to that. However, Switzerland has devised a smaller non-dollar
denominated payment channel for humanitarian goods like medicines,
which are exempt from US sanctions, and that mechanism seems to be
working.

One year on, US President Donald Trump and National Security Adviser
John Bolton want to apply maximum pressure on Iran. On May 2, they
cancelled the exemptions from oil sanctions they had granted to eight
nations and, since then, the rhetoric has ratcheted up considerably.

Iran’s reaction was to give the remaining JCPOA countries an ultimatum
of two months or it would resume activities regulated under articles 26
and 36 of the agreement. This means they would no longer sell heavy
water and enriched uranium to Russia and Oman, but store them in the
country. This did not go down well in Europe.

Unlike the US, Europe is the Middle East’s near neighbor, and the
Europeans are concerned about the lack of stability in their vicinity.
Failed states like Libya and Syria and the tenuous situation in Iraq
have resulted in streams of refugees that European governments find
difficult to deal with. It has also given rise to alt-right movements
and parties, who have written xenophobic and Islamophobic slogans on
their banners.

Europe, then, is looking on with bated breath at recent developments, as
the US is sending an aircraft carrier and airborne squadrons to the
Gulf. Trump has also warned that he could send 100,000 soldiers to the
Middle East. On Wednesday, the US ordered all non-essential personnel in
its diplomatic missions in Iraq to return for fear that they might be
attacked — only to be contradicted by Maj. Gen. Chris Ghika, the British
deputy commander of Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR), the US-led
coalition against Daesh, that there was no increased danger from
Iranian-backed forces in Iraq and Syria.

Also, this week, two Saudi oil tankers and one each from the UAE and
Norway were sabotaged off the shores of the port of Fujairah, and two
drones damaged the east-west oil pipeline in Saudi Arabia. Houthi rebels
assumed responsibility for the drone attacks. The pipeline is
important. It was built in the 1980s during the Iran-Iraq War precisely
to circumvent the Arabian Gulf and the Strait of Hurmuz. Twenty percent
of global crude oil trade has to pass through the Strait of Hormuz to
reach global markets, making it a potential choke point for worldwide
oil supplies.

Against that backdrop, Europe and, for that matter, the world fear that
any spark might ignite a situation so laden with tension, although all
parties assure that they do not want war. The Middle East is a
geopolitical powder keg, which could hardly take yet another armed
conflict.

Europe is concerned. Everybody prefers to live in a peaceful
neighborhood. This brings us to what the Europeans can do. Norbert
Roettgen, a Member of the German Bundestag and head of its foreign
affairs select committee, proposed that Germany, France and the UK (the
Europeans signatories to the JCPOA) should take a leadership role in
trying to mediate in the matter. He admitted that the JCPOA had some
faults, especially in as much as it did not include Iran’s military
involvement and influence in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Gaza and Yemen. He is
of the opinion that these issues need to be addressed, but he felt that
the JCPOA was a good starting point. He reinforced that Iran had
adhered to the letter of the agreement but opined that the two-month
ultimatum was singularly unhelpful.

Roettgen had a point. Alas, it will be difficult to get the Europeans to
act as one at this point. Brexit makes the British position difficult,
while France and Germany are currently at loggerheads on many issues. It
would also be important to engage in a meaningful way with the US
administration in order for any efforts to mediate to be effective.

In this context, it did not help that US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo
cancelled a scheduled visit with German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas at
short notice in order to go to Iraq. Pompeo was also not able to
convince the EU foreign ministers when he met them in Brussels on
Monday. Mogherini was very clear in as much as she wanted to see
tensions cooled. Pompeo’s talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin
and Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov did not go any further.

In the meantime, the saber-rattling continues and tensions are on the
rise. While both Trump and Iran’s Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei say that
they do not want war, things could unintentionally get out of hand.
Roettgen’s notion that there might be a role for the Europeans to
mediate may have some validity. However, they would need to have a very
clear game plan in order to stand a chance of succeeding — however slim
that chance might be.

• Cornelia Meyer is a business consultant, macro-economist and energy expert. Twitter: @MeyerResources

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Eurasia Review: Drone Technology Driving Iran’s Asymmetric Warfare – Analysis

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The Iranian-supplied drone attacks carried out by the Houthis on Saudi
energy infrastructure on Tuesday are an immediate concern for all
supporters. Here, the Houthis, who the same day had finished observing
the Stockholm process for clearing out the port of Hodeidah, launched
Tehran’s drones into Saudi Arabia. For some, that is a direct attack by
the Islamic Republic of Iran. There is a much bigger picture to
understand when it comes to Iranian-backed attacks on energy
infrastructure, and Tehran’s dangerous games in the face of mounting
economic pressure and international isolation are a warning of what is
to come.

Iran’s drone doctrine is based on asymmetric warfare. Most people focus
on governments deploying drones, but terrorists, insurgents and other
non-state actors are using them as well. Hezbollah has been operating
Iranian-built drones against Israel for years, but these have been
predominantly military-grade models and thus fairly sophisticated. To be
clear, Hezbollah acquires advanced models from Iran and is one of only
10 entities that have fired missiles from a drone at targets on the
ground. The other nine are all countries, not violent non-state actors.

Iran uses its drones in what should now be seen as a very threatening
manner. In March, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) held a
drill codenamed “Towards Jerusalem 1” near the strategic Strait of
Hormuz. It flew about 50 “offensive and combat” drones to the Arabian
Gulf, including “Saegheh” unmanned combat aerial vehicles, which are
based on the American RQ-170 that Tehran captured a few years ago and
that it was able to duplicate to use against the US’ Arab partners. The
drones took off from bases up to about 1,000 kilometers from the targets
on Bani Farur island and successfully bombed them. It was the first
time such a high number of offensive drones had participated in a drill.

In Yemen, the story is a continuation of the Iranian model. The Houthis
have made effective use of drones in their fight against government
forces and the Saudi-led coalition. They have struck targets inside and
outside Yemen with ballistic missiles, with US-supplied Patriot missile
batteries being the primary defense against these attacks. But drones
have not only appeared in the air — Houthi forces have also conducted
attacks on coastal shipping using remotely controlled explosive “drone
boats.” The most significant example was an attack on a Saudi frigate in
January 2017.

Now the threat against energy assets from Iran and its proxies in terms of asymmetric warfare through the use of drones is only growing. Culture seems to be a driver in Iran’s use of drones. The 1990 movie “Mohajer,” based on a true story, depicted the start of drone operations in Iran during the closing years of the Iraqi-imposed war of the 1980s. The Qods Mohajer drone first flew in 1985, so Iranian experience with drones is neither unknown nor new.

The Iranian armed forces actually started using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), including drones, at around that time, mostly for intelligence gathering, including imaging, and bombing operations.

Now we live in a more combative time, as Iran shows off its networks and
ability to spread technology in response to increasing sanctions
affecting the country’s economic sectors. Iranian forces are using
drones for every possible mission, from logistics to surveillance, and
probably soon airstrikes with payload. Iran deploys surveillance and
armed drones in its border areas, including for reconnaissance and
target identification, as well as in the neighboring countries in which
it is militarily involved, like Iraq and Syria. Moreover, with Houthi
successes, strikes on energy infrastructure by Iran and its proxies
appear to be a well-structured model for targeting such assets in the
immediate future. That Iran and its proxies can use such asymmetric
tactics, which cover land and sea, brings into focus the threat from
such technology in Tehran’s hands.

Geographically, the reach of such Iranian-based asymmetric tools is
problematic because of the way Iran is teaching its proxies, or how its
proxies modify and adapt, to use drones and other technology against
energy infrastructure or transport. Saudi Arabia and the UAE are primary
asymmetric targets because of Iran and its proxies’ modus operandiand
their proximity.

Unfortunately, the spread of such technology, which can strike other
energy infrastructure, is likely because of the ease of transportation,
assembly, launching and striking of energy-related targets. Iran’s
global network, supported by Hezbollah, is a primary threat and allies
of both exist in West Africa and Latin America. The ideal targets for
Iran and its proxies remain oil pipelines, certain oil export
infrastructure and oil industry personnel that are close to any
locations from where drones can be launched. Other target sites include
utilities and electric power plants. Wellheads will still be a target
but, thanks to drone technology, bigger targets with higher
psychological impacts loom. The US’ designation of the IRGC as a Foreign
Terrorist Organization is part of the attempts to try to mitigate the
spread of such technology. Indeed, Iran is playing a dangerous game as
President Donald Trump’s maximum pressure campaign continues.

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Eurasia Review: Current Vaccination Policies May Not Be Enough To Prevent Measles Resurgence

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Current vaccination policies may not be sufficient to achieve and
maintain measles elimination and prevent future resurgence in Australia,
Ireland, Italy, the UK and the US, according to a study published in
the open access journal BMC Medicine.

To successfully achieve and maintain measles elimination in these
countries in the medium to long term, further country-specific
immunisation efforts may be needed in addition to current strategies.
Measles elimination has been defined as the absence of endemic measles
transmission in a region or other defined geographic area for twelve
months or longer.

A team of researchers at the Bruno Kessler Foundation and Bocconi
University, Italy used a computer model to simulate the evolution of
measles immunity between 2018 and 2050 in seven countries; Australia,
Ireland, Italy, Singapore, South Korea, the UK and the US. The authors
focused their analysis on countries with a routine two-dose measles
vaccination programme and a high primary school involvement rate, but
with different demographics and vaccination histories. The aim was to
evaluate the effect of possible adjustments to existing immunisation
strategies, and to estimate the proportion of people who may remain
susceptible to measles in high-income countries over time.

The authors’ projections up until 2050 suggest that if current
vaccination policies remain unchanged, the proportion of the population
susceptible to measles would only remain below 7.5% in Singapore and
South Korea, two countries which had high vaccination coverage in the
past. Previous research estimated that the proportion of the population
that does not have immunity (maximum susceptibility) needs to be 7.5% or
less for measles to be eliminated.

In 2018, the proportion of the population susceptible to measles
infection in the countries under study ranged from 3.7% in the UK to
9.3% in Italy (the only country where the proportion was found to be
higher than 7.5%). In Australia, Ireland, the UK and the US, vaccination
from routine programmes would need to continuously cover more than 95%
of the population to keep the proportion of susceptible individuals
below 7.5% until 2050.

Dr. Filippo Trentini, the first author said: “In recent years, we’ve
witnessed a resurgence of measles cases even in countries where,
according to World Health Organisation guidelines, elimination should
already have been achieved. This resurgence is due to suboptimal
vaccination coverage levels. In Italy, where measles incidents rates
were among the highest, the government has made measles vaccination
compulsory for children before they enter primary school. We
investigated the potential of this and other policies to reinforce
immunisation rates in seven high-income countries.”

Co-author Dr. Stefano Merler added: “Our results suggest that most
of the countries we have studied would strongly benefit from the
introduction of compulsory vaccination at school entry in addition to
current immunisation programmes. In particular, we found that this
strategy would allow the UK, Ireland and the US to reach stable herd
immunity levels in the next decades, which means that a sufficiently
high proportion of individuals are immune to the disease to avoid future
outbreaks. To be effective, mandatory vaccination at school entry would
need to cover more than 40% of the population.”

In Italy, the fraction of susceptible individuals by 2050 is
projected to be 10%, even if coverage for routine vaccination reaches
100%, and additional vaccination strategies targeting both children at
school entry and adults may be needed to achieve elimination.

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Eurasia Review: Archaeological Discovery Upends A Piece Of Barbados History

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Which came first, the pigs or the pioneers? In Barbados, that has
been a historical mystery ever since the first English colonists arrived
on the island in 1627 to encounter what they thought was a herd of wild
European pigs.

A recent discovery by an SFU archaeologist is shedding new light on
the matter. Christina Giovas uncovered the jaw bone of a peccary, a
South American mammal that resembles a wild pig, while researching a
larger project on prehistoric animal introductions in the Caribbean.

“I didn’t give it much notice at the time, but simply collected it
along with other bones,” says Giovas, the lead author of a study just
published in PLOS ONE. “It was completely unexpected and I honestly thought I must have made a mistake with the species identification.”

Giovas and collaborators George Kamenov and John Krigbaum of the
University of Florida radiocarbon-dated the bone and conducted strontium
isotope analysis to determine the age and whether the peccary was born
on Barbados or had been imported from elsewhere.

The results showed the peccary was local and dated to 1645-1670,
when the English wrote their account of finding wild European pigs on
the Caribbean island. The researchers were not only able to show there
had been a previously undetected historic peccary introduction but that
the region’s earliest celebrated maps depicted peccaries that had been
mistaken for pigs by the English.

Giovas says the findings upend Barbados’ accepted colonial history
and reflect how quickly Europeans began to alter New World environments
by altering species distributions.

“Checking historical and archaeological records, we determined the
most likely source of peccary introduction was from Spanish or
Portuguese ships passing the island in the 16th century–and most likely
left as a source of meat for future visiting sailors,” she says.

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Eurasia Review: Plane Crash Near Dubai Airport Kills Three Britons And A South African

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Four people were killed when a small plane crashed near
Dubai International Airport, temporarily halting some flights in and out
of the busy regional hub.

The crash killed three Britons and a South African on board the
four-seater Diamond DA62, the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority said. The
UK registered plane was on a mission to calibrate terrestrial navigation
systems at the airport when it crashed about 5 kilometers south of the
airport.

The crash was due to a mechanical fault, Dubai Media Office said.

The airport said it halted flights from 7.36 p.m. until 8.22 p.m. local time over the crash.

“All operations at the Dubai airport are running smoothly after a slight delay and diversion of some flights as a precautionary measure to ensure security following a minor incident involving a small plane,” the media office said.

Dubai International Airport, home to the long-haul carrier Emirates, is the world’s busiest airport for international travel.

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Eurasia Review: Iran: Khamenei Appoints New IRGC Commanders

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Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei promoted Brigadier General Ali Fadavi to lieutenant commander of the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC), replacing him with Brigadier General Mohammad Reza Naqdi.

In a decree released on Thursday, Ayatollah Khamenei, who is also the
Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces, appointed Brigadier
General Fadavi, who was the IRGC deputy commander for coordination, as
the new lieutenant commander of the IRGC.

The Leader hailed “the
valuable and worthwhile experiences” of Brigadier General Fadavi and
wished him success during his tenure.

In a separate decree on the
same day, Ayatollah Khamenei appointed Brigadier General Naqdi as the
new IRGC deputy commander for coordination.

Last month, the Leader
appointed General Hossein Salami as the new commander of the military
elite force, promoting him to the rank of major general.

The
Leader advised Major General Salami to fully upgrade the IRGC’s
capabilities and preparedness in all fields while paying due attention
to the IRGC’s “internal gem”, that is, piety and insight.

Ayatollah Khamenei also called for major steps to be taken under the new command towards the all-out improvement of the IRGC.

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Eurasia Review: Australian Islands Home To 414 Million Pieces Of Plastic Pollution

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A survey of plastic pollution on Australia’s Cocos (Keeling) Islands
has revealed the territory’s beaches are littered with an estimated 414
million pieces of plastic debris.

The study led by IMAS researcher Dr Jennifer Lavers and published in the journal Scientific Reports
estimated beaches on the Indian Ocean islands are littered with 238
tonnes of plastic, including 977 000 shoes and 373 000 toothbrushes.

Dr Lavers’ research made headlines around the world when in May 2017
she revealed that beaches on remote Henderson Island in the South
Pacific had the highest density of plastic debris reported anywhere on
Earth.

While the density of plastic debris on Cocos (Keeling) Islands
beaches is lower than on Henderson Island, the total volume dwarfs the
38 million pieces weighing 17 tonnes found on the Pacific island.

Dr Lavers said remote islands which don’t have large human
populations depositing rubbish nearby are an indicator of the amount of
plastic debris circulating in the world’s oceans.

“Islands such as these are like canaries in a coal mine and it’s
increasingly urgent that we act on the warnings they are giving us,” Dr
Lavers said.

“Plastic pollution is now ubiquitous in our oceans, and remote
islands are an ideal place to get an objective view of the volume of
plastic debris now circling the globe.

“Our estimate of 414 million pieces weighing 238 tonnes on Cocos
(Keeling) is conservative, as we only sampled down to a depth of 10
centimetres and couldn’t access some beaches that are known debris
‘hotspots’.

“Unlike Henderson Island, where most identifiable debris was
fishing-related, the plastic on Cocos (Keeling) was largely single-use
consumer items such as bottle caps and straws, as well as a large number
of shoes and thongs,” Dr Lavers said.

Co-author Dr Annett Finger from Victoria University said global
production of plastic continues to increase, with almost half of the
plastic produced over the past 60-years manufactured in the last
13-years.

“An estimated 12.7 million tonnes of plastic entered our oceans in
2010 alone, with around 40 per cent of plastics entering the waste
stream in the same year they’re produced,” Dr Finger said.

“As a result of the growth in single-use consumer plastics, it’s
estimated there are now 5.25 trillion pieces of ocean plastic debris.

“Plastic pollution is a well-documented threat to wildlife and its
potential impact on humans is a growing area of medical research.

“The scale of the problem means cleaning up our oceans is currently
not possible, and cleaning beaches once they are polluted with plastic
is time consuming, costly, and needs to be regularly repeated as
thousands of new pieces of plastic wash up each day.

“The only viable solution is to reduce plastic production and
consumption while improving waste management to stop this material
entering our oceans in the first place,” Dr Finger said.

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Eurasia Review: 24% Of West Antarctic Ice Is Now Unstable

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By combining 25 years of European Space Agency satellite altimeter
measurements and a model of the regional climate, the UK Centre for
Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM) have tracked changes in snow and
ice cover across the continent.

A team of researchers, led by Professor Andy Shepherd from the
University of Leeds, found that Antarctica’s ice sheet has thinned by up
to 122 metres in places, with the most rapid changes occurring in West
Antarctica where ocean melting has triggered glacier imbalance.

This means that the affected glaciers are unstable as they are
losing more mass through melting and iceberg calving than they are
gaining through snowfall.

The team found that the pattern of glacier thinning has not been
static. Since 1992, the thinning has spread across 24% of West
Antarctica and over the majority of its largest ice streams – the Pine
Island and Thwaites Glaciers – which are now losing ice five times
faster than they were at the start of the survey.

The study, published today in Geophysical Research Letters,
used over 800 million measurements of the Antarctic ice sheet height
recorded by the ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat, and CryoSat-2 satellite altimeter
missions between 1992 and 2017 and simulations of snowfall over the
same period produced by the RACMO regional climate model.

Together, these measurements allow changes in the ice sheet height
to be separated into those due to weather patterns, such as less
snowfall, and those due to longer term changes in climate, such as
increasing ocean temperatures that eat away ice.

Lead author and CPOM Director Professor Andy Shepherd explained: “In
parts of Antarctica the ice sheet has thinned by extraordinary amounts,
and so we set out to show how much was due to changes in climate and
how much was due to weather.”

To do this, the team compared the measured surface height change to
the simulated changes in snowfall, and where the discrepancy was greater
they attributed its origin to glacier imbalance.

They found that fluctuations in snowfall tend to drive small changes
in height over large areas for a few years at a time, but the most
pronounced changes in ice thickness are signals of glacier imbalance
that have persisted for decades.

Professor Shepherd added: “Knowing how much snow has fallen has
really helped us to detect the underlying change in glacier ice within
the satellite record. We can see clearly now that a wave of thinning has
spread rapidly across some of Antarctica’s most vulnerable glaciers,
and their losses are driving up sea levels around the planet.

“Altogether, ice losses from East and West Antarctica have contributed 4.6 mm to global sea level rise since 1992.”

Dr Marcus Engdahl of the European Space Agency, a co-author of the
study, added: “This is an important demonstration of how satellite
missions can help us to understand how our planet is changing. The polar
regions are hostile environments and are extremely difficult to access
from the ground. Because of this, the view from space is an essential
tool for tracking the effects of climate change.”

Eurasia Review


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Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites): The FBI News Review: “Christopher Wray” – Google News: Are the U.S. and China heading for a deal — or a divorce? – The Washington Post

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May 16, 2019
“Christopher Wray” – Google News: Are the U.S. and China heading for a deal — or a divorce? – The Washington Post
Crime and Criminology from Michael_Novakhov (10 sites): “political crimes” – Google News: Jonah Goldberg: Holding Barr in contempt is a case of dirty politics – NewsOK.com
FBI Officials Who Worked On Clinton Email Case Never Suspected Strzok-Page Affair Under Their Noses – The Daily Caller
“mueller” – Google News: Mueller probe lawyer does jury duty stint in NYC – Minneapolis Star Tribune

“Christopher Wray” – Google News: Are the U.S. and China heading for a deal — or a divorce? – The Washington Post

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
President Trump’s latest swipe at China suggests that more than a year of negotiations aimed at a sweeping trade deal with Beijing may instead produce agreement only on the terms of an economic divorce.
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Crime and Criminology from Michael_Novakhov (10 sites): “political crimes” – Google News: Jonah Goldberg: Holding Barr in contempt is a case of dirty politics – NewsOK.com

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
Jonah Goldberg: Holding Barr in contempt is a case of dirty politics By Jonah Goldberg Published: Thu, May 16, 2019 7:15 PM In this May 1, 2019, file photo, Attorney General William Barr appears at a Senate Judiciary Committee hearing on Capitol Hill in Washington.
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FBI Officials Who Worked On Clinton Email Case Never Suspected Strzok-Page Affair Under Their Noses – The Daily Caller

The Daily Caller
Two FBI officials who worked in counterintelligence and described themselves as friends with either Peter Strzok or Lisa Page said they did not pick up that their colleagues were having an extramarital affair, according to transcripts of testimony obtained by The Daily Caller News Foundation.
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“mueller” – Google News: Mueller probe lawyer does jury duty stint in NYC – Minneapolis Star Tribune

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
NEW YORK — One of Robert Mueller’s top lieutenants has returned to private life only to get another legal assignment as a juror in a slip-and-fall case. Andrew Weissman was picked for a New York City jury at a civil trial involving a woman’s claim against a food market where she fell.
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Russia News: РБК – Все материалы: У 60 региональных депутатов оказался доход ниже прожиточного минимума

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60 региональных депутатов задекларировали за 2018 год доход ниже прожиточного минимума, обнаружил РБК. В декларациях 11 парламентариев указан нулевой заработок, а шесть депутатов оказались миллиардерами

РБК – Все материалы

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Russia News: RSS: В российский Центр примирения враждующих сторон в Сирии поступила информация о подготовке провокации террористами «Джабхат ан-Нусра» в провинции Идлиб

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В российский Центр примирения враждующих сторон в Сирии поступила информация о подготовке провокации террористами «Джабхат ан-Нусра» в провинции Идлиб

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Russia News: Вести.Ru: В Персидский залив вошли американские военные корабли

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В Персидский залив вошли американские военные корабли. Другие суда ВМС США находятся на подходах к нему.

Download video: https://redirect.vgtrk.com/go/video2/1901429

Вести.Ru

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Russia News: Вести.Ru: “Бостон” стал первым финалистом Кубка Стэнли

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В столице американского штата Северная Каролина Роли завершилась четвертая игра серии полуфинала Кубка Стэнли между местными “Харрикейнз” и “Бостон Брюинз”. Гости добились победы со счетом 4:0 и первыми вышли в финал турнира.

Вести.Ru

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“fbi” – Google News: Suspect in 2006 Galt homicide arrested by FBI in Mexico – ABC10.com KXTV

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Suspect in 2006 Galt homicide arrested by FBI in Mexico  ABC10.com KXTV

The FBI and Galt Police Department worked for 13 years to arrest Javier Montanez Jr., a suspect in the murder of 19-year-old Clinton Poole in 2006.

“fbi” – Google News


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Trump Investigations from Michael_Novakhov (85 sites): “2016 Presidential Election Investigation” – Google News: Barr on Trump-Russia investigation: ‘We have to find out what the government was doing’ – Washington Examiner

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Barr on Trump-Russia investigation: ‘We have to find out what the government was doing’  Washington Examiner

Attorney General William Barr wants to know what government officials were doing at start of the Trump-Russia investigation. “If we’re worried about foreign …

“2016 Presidential Election Investigation” – Google News

Trump Investigations from Michael_Novakhov (85 sites)


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Russia News: Газета.Ru – Новости дня: 21 летательный аппарат провел разведку у границ России

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За прошедшую неделю российские истребители шесть раз были подняты по тревоге в связи с возможными нарушениями границ России. Об этом пишет официальное издание Минобороны “Красная Звезда”.

Сообщается, что разведку у российских …

Газета.Ru – Новости дня

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Russia News: Газета.Ru – Новости дня: Эс-хавбек “Спартака”: мне неприятен Карпин

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Бывший полузащитник “Спартака” Динияр Билялетдинов высказался о тренере Валерии Карпине, передает “Спорт-Экспресс”.

Карпин тренировал “Спартак” с 2009 по 2014 год. На сегодняшний момент он возглавляет …

Газета.Ru – Новости дня

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Russia News: “Nato Russia” – Google News: Russia’s resurgence and China’s rise will test NATO – DNA India

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Russia’s resurgence and China’s rise will test NATO  DNA India

Russia’s resurgence and China’s rise will test NATO – While NATO began as a political and military alliance designed to restore and maintain the security of the …

“Nato Russia” – Google News

Russia News


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Russia News: РБК – Все материалы: Помпео назвал три точки сближения России и США

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Есть три сферы, где Россия и США уверенно взаимодействуют, уверен госсекретарь США. Одна из таких точек соприкосновения интересов — борьба с терроризмом, где американцы и русские взаимно обеспечивают безопасность двух стран

РБК – Все материалы

Russia News


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“counterintelligence Mueller Investigation” – Google News: Trump Administration Defies Democrats in Two House Inquiries – Bloomberg

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Trump Administration Defies Democrats in Two House Inquiries  Bloomberg

Two leading House Democrats lashed out at the Trump administration Thursday for refusing to cooperate in their investigations, as the White House continues to …

“counterintelligence Mueller Investigation” – Google News


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